Letter to International Orienteering Federation and SEEOA

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

To: International Orienteering Federation

Copy to: South East European Orienteering  Association,

Dear Mr Brian Porteous, President of IOF,

Dear Mr Tom Hollowell, General Secretary of IOF,

Dear Mrs Maria Silvia Viti IOF Council member,

Dear Mrs Anna Jacobson Assistant Secretary and responsible for regional development.

Dear Mrs Astrid Waaler Kaas, IOF Vice President Assistant Secretary General

Dear Mr Zoran Milovanovic, President of SEEOA

Subject: provisional membership of Greece must be terminated now.

Thank you for your letter regarding provisional membership of IOF. I understand that IOF would like to see Greece become a full member of the IOF but this is impossible under the current Greek sports law! I appreciate that the IOF is willing to extend the period of provisional membership for one more Congress period, until July 2016 but I personally believe that provisional membership must be terminated right now! You ask me what are the main obstacles for us to develop the sport of orienteering in our country. That’s a very good question but very complicated. Foreigners could not  fully understand the calamity that Greece is in at the moment. Besides, I would like to thank you very much for your generous invitation for us to take part in the 2011 World Orienteering Championships in France and in 2012 WOC in Switzerland. Also we would like to thank you for the training clinics organised by the IOF. I appreciated that the IOF and the Organising Committees of WOC helped the development in the newer orienteering countries. But the big issue is: Was there really any development in the newer orienteering countries as a result of IOF’s efforts? I am not in a position to judge as a whole. But in the case of Greece the answer is clearly NO. You have to re-examine IOF’s strategy as regards Greece. That’s not the way to help Greece to become full member. Before I make any suggestions you have to understand the background of orienteering in Greece. Bear with me and let me explain why.

The main problem is not technical or financial but social and cultural.

Unfortunately, Greece is not yet in a position to benefit from your promotional efforts. As one would expect, newer orienteering countries, like Greece, are lacking the recources, the background and the talent to compete at elite level. It would be more beneficial for us to introduce the sport in Greek schools and acquire some proper or small orienteering maps all over the country. We achieved a lot  at grass roots but nothing at elite level. After 18 years of constant pioneering work we have only four or five proper colour orienteering maps in the whole of the country! Two of them were sponsored by the WWOP company and one by local authorities of Grevena, Macedonia, Greece (not FYROM). The other two were drawn by Greek orienteers. Needless to say we have never been sponsored by central sporting authorities in Athens. All the rest of the orienteering maps we use are black and white. But the real problem is not technical or financial but social, cultural and political. We (Mr Karadimitriou and myself) have travelled all over the country and I have personally conducted hundreds of speeches, seminars, and practical school lessons. Unfortunately, there is nothing much you could have done to help Greek orienteering. (We did ask you whether we could get second hand and old orienteering flags but this  never materialized). Sport sociologists’ standard position is that sports mirrors society. If society is in a mess so it is with sports. You need to understand this.

Short History of orienteering in Greece

The Greek Orienteering Club of Thessaloniki has organized four international orienteering event in Greece. A hundred and twenty Scandinavians took part in the 3rd International event, overall 163 athletes (123+40 locals). An international event in Greece could not attract more than 40 locals. I have personally organized 61 open orienteering events. Besides, I have conducted numerous seminars, school orienteering events and speeches. More recently, the Greek Orienteering Club under the guidance of Mr Karadimitriou has organized several orienteering events in central Macedonia region, Greece. The record number is 576 pupils. This is another Greek paradox. Nearly, all our orienteering activities have been taking place in central Macedonia region, Greece, south of the borders with FYROM. A world ranking orienteering event has never been organized in this country but this is the last of our worries. As a Bulgarian experienced orienteer pointed out Greece is terra incognito.

Orienteering has already attracted some media coverage and some attention by the public in Greece but the almost complete absence of school orienteering maps, the absence of qualified P.E. teachers with a deep interest in the sport, prevents us from spreading the sport at grass roots level. Nothing will be achieved without coach education, P.E. teachers’ education, a strong infrastructure of maps and events to follow up the publicity and of course adequate funding. Since promoting a new sport should start from a grass roots level, collaboration with school authorities and environmental centres is of vital importance. However, the school authorities are reluctant to allow children to run in the neighbouring forests, due to security and financial issues. In one of our finest moments on 13th of May 1999 an orienteering seminar was organized by the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science of the University of Thessaloniki under the auspices of the Special Secretariat of Sports in Thessaloniki. Mrs Barbro Ronnberg, ex-General Secretary of IOF visited Thessaloniki for four days in May 1999. The seminar was attended by over 80 people and was very successful. A lot of promotional material was distributed during the seminar but made very little impact.  Another lesson to be drawn here is that delivering expensive brochures won’t help in the long run. A leaflet is enough. We have to educate a whole generation!!!! During her visit, Mrs Barbro Ronnberg had the opportunity to visit certain Greek authorities, University teachers and Mass Sport in the perfecture of Thessaloniki. Mrs Barbro Ronnberg also gave a live interview on State television ERT-3.

Waste of human recources. Greece did not benefit in the long run by IOF efforts.

As I have mentioned earlier, in 2011 and 2012 and thanks to your generous offer Greece participated in the WOC with six (4+2) athletes. We thought they gained valuable experience for the future. However, this valuable experience was not used for the benefit of their country fellowmen. The Greek orienteering club of Thessaloniki has already sent 16 men and women abroad to attend the O-Ringen Academy or to take part in WOC or other orienteering events in Sweden, France, Switzerland and Austria. The same story has been repeated four times! This happened without any help by the Greek State at all. All my life I have tried to be modest but here the truth is, to do all these things without any help by the State is an extraordinary achievement. Of the 12 Greeks, only two, myself and somenone else, are active orienteers at this very moment. The rest have ceased their involvement in orienteering. Their primary incentive was most probably tourism. I would call this as a waste of human recources. I regard this as human capital loss. Another lesson to be drawn here for IOF is that by inviting less developed (in orienteering) nations to take part in mega-events doesn’t have any real impact in that country. I believe that it might boost the prestige of the host nations by artificially increasing the number of participating nations but there are no long term benefits. I have recently learnt from other people that two Greeks have already been invited to take part in WOC. There were four candidates but only one with real experience in orienteering. The second candidate has never taken part in any orienteering event ever! He was proposed to travel to WOC! I wonder why.

IOF now uses the official names of member states as defined by UN resolutions.

 In the past we complained about the use of word “Macedonia” instead of the official name the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, (FYROM) in your official correspondence, the official magazine “the Orienteering world” and the IOF members’ list. In 1993, the General Assembly decided to admit FYROM as a Member of the United Nations, the State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as “The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name (see http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml). It was not my intention to get involved in politics. I have many orienteering friends from FYROM and we have travelled there several times. However, we have to point out that athletes from FYROM have been invited to take part in the World Orienteering championship under the name Macedonia. Both of the Greek athletes in WOV 2012 came from the Greek part of Macedonia. This is confusing for many people. One of the Greek athletes in Switzerland phoned me and threatened to abstain from WOC unless something was done about the name. I had to take action. Therefore, we believe that IOF should use the official names of member states. The official names are those mentioned by the United Nations. To its credit IOF changed its records. Once again with the orienteers in FYROM we are friends.

Another very serious problem arose when SEEOA, then SEEOWG, used wrong state names about the Republic of Cyprus. Instead of the UN approved name the Republic of Cyprus SEEOA officials used the invalid words South Cyprus and North Cyprus. Perhaps they were influenced by the Turkish propaganda in favour of an independent pseudo-state of Northern Cyprus. On the other hand with the Turkish orienteers we are friends. I have competed in an orienteering race in Turkey and I admired their good management. These mistakes stretched our relationship. We don’t want to get involved in politics. But we understand a lot.

Inequality of resources. Trying to compete at international level is pointless.

The level of State support from their governments that other nations enjoy is tremendous. For example, the Chinese orienteering team traveled to the Czech Republic two months before the World championships[1]. They trained using different maps every day. Their aim is constant improvement and they hope that a Chinese athlete will be able to win a medal in the future. In another example the relay mountain bike orienteering winners from Denmark have been working on orienteering techniques with a personal trainer, who has looked at route choices from the past and then given them advice[2]. The Australian double World champion Jackson spent 7 weeks in Europe before the World championships in Poland and competed both in Poland and France before taking part in WOC MB championship[3]. Comparatively, our humble but sound aim is to make orienteering comprehensible in the mind of Greek governors. Up to a certain extent we have achieved this target. The Ministry of Education is in favour of innovative projects in schools. Orienteering now is regarded as an innovative project. Many school teachers have started similar projects. We hope that they will understand what orienteering is all about. It is hard to believe that there will ever be a paid Greek orienteering coach. To aim higher is unrealistic. To contemplate asking for sponsorship by the Greek sport authorities is outrageous at this very moment. As was proved by the results in 2011 and 2012, Greece has nothing to gain by taking part in the World championship. Your offer to Greek athletes a chance to compete in WOC might help hosting nations to boost the number of nations competing but it certainly didn’t help Greece. Even further it caused more problems within Greek orienteering by having to select amongst already a few participants. You could have invited instead qualified orienteers to take part in coach education seminars.

The Greek law will not permit the creation of a National Federation.

As I have written to you on other occasions, under the new sports law, at least 20 administrative councils of orienteering and hiking clubs should decide and send their representatives to a Constitutional General Meeting. The problem is that there aren’t that many orienteering clubs in Greece and perhaps there never will be! These twenty clubs must organize orienteering events, something which is highly unlikely! Another prerequisite of the new law is that there should be at least 10 registered and competitive athletes by a club if this club aspires to be recognized by the General Secretariat of Sport. This is also very unlikely! The deadline for Greece to stay as provisional member has expired and we want to discontinue affiliation to IOF immediately. This is a point that I have already discussed with the President Mr Brian Porteous when he visited Belgrade in March 2011 during the First Council meeting of the Confederation of Mediterranean Orienteering Federations and the 7th meeting of the South East European Orienteering Working group. I would like to express my opinion in a clear way. Even before the recession in Greece, we have been going from one extreme to the other.  This is reflected in the sport law. Because of cases of gross corruption within sport clubs and sporting Federations in the past, things became quite tough in 1999. Undertaking of the Olympics 2004 made things worse.

There are now several essential documents for giving special sporting recognition to a new Federation according to the rules and regulations of law 2725/99, articles 20 and 28. There are 17 requirements in order to meet the criteria set by the State. The most difficult criteria are the following three:

1) Criterion No 5. Twenty orienteering clubs (20) minimum must decide to form a new Greek orienteering Federation. These clubs must present verified official documents with their decisions. The administrative councils of these clubs or the general meetings of these clubs must take these decisions. We need several decades at least to establish 20 authentic orienteering clubs in Greece.

2) Criterion No 13. The members of the administrative councils must present official verified documents that they participate neither in other sporting clubs or Federations as simple members or members of other administrative councils. That means, in other words, that if a hiker or a cyclist or a runner shows an interest in orienteering also he cannot be a member of any future administrative council in orienteering. For example, just because I am an active member of a hiking club I cannot possibly become a member of any future administrative council in orienteering. I will have to cease being a member of a hiking club, a sport that I enjoy. This is ridiculous but it is the law. Of course, this is something that I do not want to do. An orienteering athlete cannot become a member of the administrative council of his own club (act 2725/99, articles 22, paragraph 6). The law needs to change regarding paragraph 6 subparagraph so that orienteering is included in the exemptions. If you would like you could write a letter to the Greek authorities regarding the sports law.

3) Criterion No 16. Annual budget approved by the General Assembly regarding income (membership fees, donations, sponsorship, allowances) signed and approved by the president, the general secretary and sealed by the official stamp of the candidate Federation. At the moment there are no membership fees from members of this club, let alone membership fees from orienteering clubs, towards the candidate Federation. There are no donations, sponsorhips or allowances to our orienteering club. During the last 15 years the only donation was 200 euros donated by the municipality of Thessaloniki in order to produce a poster and another 100 euros donated by two outdoor shops, also in order to produce a poster. The only substantial donation came from WOOP and we are really grateful to them. Yet, without income our work has been continuing thanks mainly to our insistent support for the sport and private spending.

In the past we did try to join other Greek Sporting Federations. For example on 16-3-2005 the Greek Federation of Hiking and Rock Climbing sent a letter refusing to register our club in their Federation. The same thing happened with the Cycling Federation. The Greek Orienteering club of Thessaloniki is recognized by IOF as a provisional member but not by Greek authorities. The regulations for recognition are very tough and I am not intending to waste my time in dealing with Greek bureaucracy. Another paradox is the fact that the non-existant Greek Orienteering Club of Athens continues to appear in the official magazine of IOF! I wonder why? The new Greek government is about to change the current Greek sports law. If you would like you could write a letter to the Greek authorities regarding the sports law.

Athens 2004, Olympics and orienteering.

Mrs Solveig Sikkeland and Mr Svein Jacobsen from the Norwegian Orienteering Federation visited Greece in 1997. The president of the Norwegian General Secretariat of sport Mr Arne Myhrvold visited Ancient Olympia. During their trip to Ancient Olympia they inspected the area and  found that orienteering could be organized there during the Olympic Games of 2004. The first two and myself visited the National Geographic Service in Athens. We had a long and interesting discussion about orienteering. Greece became an IOF Associate member in 2000. It can’t possibly  become full member because of financial and administrative problems. Ten years later after the end of Athens 2004 and as the severe recession has proved to the Greeks the inclusion of orienteering in the official programme of Athens 2004 would have added to the expenses made for hosting the Olympics and would have widened the gap or paying back Greece’s debt. Although the country’s economy was on the brink of collapse all these years -and surely the economists and politicians should have been aware of the actual economic situation of the country, the Greek government undertook the huge task of hosting the Olympics. They hosted it well but according to Lygeros (2011, p.147): “the 2000s, public finances were burdened because of excessive spending on Olympic projects and later due to the global economic crisis. The last two Greek governments before the Olympics didn’t do anything to reverse the situation. The results are well-known.” When the opportunity of the Olympic Games arose, many scandalous tax exemptions were issued by the Greek government. The tax exemption of foreign companies even for income derived in Greece, but not related to activities of the Olympic Games was outrageous. What’s the purpose of relieving all sorts of tax revenues of the International Olympic Committee’ profits in Greece? And we are talking about IOC which is sponsored by dozens of multinationals. According to Bogiopoulos (2011 No. 46) during that era “an act was issued which provided: corporation tax exemption for sponsorships and donations to the “Athens 2004″, income tax exemption of the International Olympic Commitee’s profits in Greece, tax exemption from income earned in the country by foreign firms declared as international donors by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), tax exemption of foreign companies for income earned in Greece, but not related to activities of the Olympic Games.” This is the real scandal. From a Greek perspective IOF’s position in favour of the inclusion of orienteering in Athens 2004 was wrong. What could IOF learn from this situation you may guess.

Besides, there is a naïve belief on the part of some orienteers that orienteering could improve international relations, peace and orienteering. For example, Forstromm (2001) repeats the erroneous belief that “the Olympic Movement can break down barriers of language, culture, nationality, age and sex and build bridges between people all over the world as a means of promoting world peace”. It is a functionalist argument that we have heard countless times. Therefore for Forstromm (2001) orienteering being part of something bigger is always good. But as we know very well from human sport history peace between two competing nations is strengthened only if there are already good relations between those two nations (Coakley, 1984). Otherwise if there are poor relations between two competing nations violence might errupt as it did happen in the past. Orienteering is no exception to this rule.

The financial situation in Greece and its consequences on sports including orienteering.

As it well known Greece now faces a severe recession and therefore any sporting problems are detrimental to the big issue, which of course is nothing else but the debt. According to French sociologist Touraine (2011, p. 225) points out: “Crisis is the result of a complete break imposed by the owners of the financial institutions from the interests of the general population. The capitalist industrial society which incorporated the employees’ means of resistance as well as the protection of employers and owners of the financial institutions has been collapsed by the irresponsible action of some financial managers. Our first priority ought to be the rebuilding of a society in which the men in control of the economy ought to be obliged by the state to take the interests and the reactions of the population more into consideration”. Besides, as Touraine (2011) points out: “Returning back to the past is impossible because crisis has been caused from behaviours opposing rationalism. Industrial societies have been fatally wounded. We can’t bring them back to life”. So is the case with Greek sports (including orienteering). For the club returning back to the past is impossible because crisis has been caused from behaviours opposing rationalism. The Greek orienteering has been fatally wounded. A couple of hiking clubs “established” orienteering departments and they try to fill the vacuum. There is a serious power struggle happening now in Greece amongst athletes who benefited greatly by the existence of the Greek orienteering club. The outcome is difficult to guess. As sport sociologists have argued countless times sports mirrors society. If society is in a mess (as it is unfortunately the case of Greece) the same applies to sports (including orienteering). That’s the simple truth. You wouldn’t expect anything else.

The Greek orienteering club fell victim to these policies. The Greek government decided to reduce drastically the number of clubs which were obliged to pay value-added taxes. On the suspicion that behind each club or non-profit company tied with the value-added taxes there are profit oriented motives a means of income was sought by the Greek Tax Office. The orienteering club was charged with hundreds of euros and was forced to be dissolved in its current form.

The former leadership of the Ministry of Finance has sent bills of payment to non-existing companies, cultural clubs and non-profit athletic clubs at the same time. In hundreds of cases notices relating to general partnerships were sent. These partnerships have closed from since 1970s and most of the owners mostly have died. Bill notices were received by cultural non-profit clubs, sporting clubs or organizations, which starve from lack of membership fees or they are dependant on sponsorship. Although there is no income the Greek orienteering club has received a huge bill to pay to the Tax Office. In the meantime, the Greek orienteering club has to pay annual membership to IOF. Besides, we are supposed to attend all meetings  organized by SEEWOG. In this stifling financial situation the pressure upon us from all different directions is tremendous and we simply cannot cope It’s much better for the club to cease to exist. We are not intending to go bankrupt just because we have a passion for this sport or any other sport. I am afraid the vacuum will be filled by corrupted men who are ready to storm into the scene to take advantage of the messy situation.

The power struggle within the Greek orienteering movement.

Arrogant men are plotting against those who have already worked hard to try to seize control. Imperfect knowledge is worse than ignorance. Right from the start my decision to promote orienteering in my beloved country was met with unjustified resistance by ignorant people. More recently a mountain bike athlete, drawn by business interests exhibited complete lack of respect for men who have worked for the orienteering in Greece. (I am in the sport since 1986 and Mr. Karadimitriou since 2008). Mr Hortomaris made serious allegations against myself and I am obliged to address them. From the beginning Mr. Chortomaris made malicious comments and his criticism was not constructive but demolishing. Unfortunately, Mr Milovanovic, perhaps unaware of the situation decided to back him.

  • Mr Hortomaris went as far as to lie by pretending that no orienteering events using coloured maps have ever been organized in Greece before his events! In this way he ignored the excellent work done by outstanding Swedish, Bulgarian and Serbian map-makers.
  • Moral values are not outdated. Mr. Chortomaris accused me of having outdated ideas by saying: “The point is to open to the world, otherwise you will end up like the Communist Party, with outdated ideas”. What was the introduction of an innovative sport in Greece? Obsolete idea? Mr. Chortomaris is an ignorant and ahistorical man.
  • Mr. Hortomaris made allegations of myself as being a dark man by declaring: “Deep Darkness!” What happened was exactly the opposite. Absolute Transparency. Several times I visited Mr Hortomaris in his office and discussed orienteering issues with him. If he really wanted he could have asked me anything. At our great expense we have organized three National Meetings where we analyzed in detail the situation in Greece regarding the sport we asked the opinion of the participants.
  • Mr Hortomaris would like to see more large scale events. But as Milovanovic said in a conference “it is a great mistake to organize several events. What we need is training sessions not races”. And my question is: What have we been doing for 16 years with hundreds of seminars, competitions, lectures, school projects, teaching in schools, universities, writing articles, interviews on TV, etc? Is the publishing of scientific articles in peer reviewed journals just a worthless literary discussion? Mr. Chortomaris has tried to demolish everything. We want respect. Giving is more important than receiving (e.g. free translations, free educational material, free equipment, free information), We welcomed Mr Hortomaris in the best possible manner. In return I was showered with malicious comments.
  • In the past I have made some attempts to review the literature regarding coach education and to address some urgent issues. These efforts have been dismissed by an arrogant Mr Hortomaris who said: “the text is good to be published in a scientific conference. I do not think it says anything essential for orienteering. I point out again that since there is no “structure” (federation, local associations, clubs, official judges, official coaches, official map-makers, etc.) in the sport, everything you mentioned is just a literary discussion … There is no legal impediment”. Mr. Hortomaris probably dislikes literary work. He continued: “For as long as we pay attention to formal bureaucratic issues there will be no development. Literary discussions are good but they are inapplicable!”

The orienteering coach should also be a psychologist, a pedagogist and an animateur. Certified coaches with sound educational school experiences could design good races for school youngsters. Mr Hortomaris went as far as to suggest, in front of all orienteers, in a Panhellenic meeting that no youngster under the age of 12 must be allowed to take part in orienteering events! This is a gross mistake from a pedagogical point of view.  Mr Milovanovic organized an orienteering seminar in Greece. Although I am still an active and elected  member of SEEOA Mr Milovanovic did not inform me for organizing a seminar in my own country!

Mr Hortomaris went as far as to question the value of a Physical Education degree. My very clear position is that a Physical Education degree is a first safety valve, not a guarantee that someone will avoid mistakes. In a similar manner a medical degree is a safety valve. The Physical Education degree is a safety valve to avoid committing gross pedagogical, psychological, coaching and other errors.

Suggestions and Conclusion

There is not much you could do to help Greece becoming a full member.

1) Perhaps you could send an experienced lecturer to conduct a seminar leading to basic instructor’s award for a few qualified Greeks. The number of orienteers in Greece who would qualify for such a course is no more than 7-10 people. I believe that Mr Georgiev is the most suitable person for this role. Some short of exams should take place after the end of the seminar.

2) The other option would be arrangements for a small of Greeks to travel abroad. However, there is a serious financial problem as well as a language barrier.

3) Georgiev’s book could be fully translated and given to the participants who will pay for taking part in the seminar. Alternatively, there is an unpublished Greek book about orienteering written by the undersigned.

4) The new Greek government is about to change the current Greek sports law. If you would like you could write a letter to the Greek authorities regarding the sports law. External pressure might bring results in this case.

5) Stop sending invitations to Greeks to take part in WOC. That’s not the way to promote the sport in this country. Taking part in O-Ringen Academies is suitable provided that there are already committed candidates.

In conclusion, the lack of official structure in the sport in Greece has been regarded as an opportunity by some to capitalize on the chaos caused by the economy’s recession in order to promote their own business interests. Secondly, many do not understand their limitations. As the former chairman of the IOF Sue Harvey said “the nature of the sport means that we are perfectionists. We do not tolerate incompetence. This quality is one reason we have a very high level of organization of competitions. This is what makes it even more difficult for us to integrate with others who do things in a different way and are unable to understand the importance we place on some things” (reported by Ronnberg, 2001, The orienteering world). Therefore, I am asking the IOF to delete our club from associate membership of IOF and delete the respected name of GREECE as a country from your list. I understand that it is impossible under the present circumstances and IOF regulations to remain in the same stagnant position. Although we have got the sport firmly established in Northern Greece and although we cooperated with orienteers in Athens and all over Greece with the aim of creating one single organization (National federation) that could then apply for full IOF membership this is impossible under the present Greek law. Unfortunately, my country fellowmen are not willing to work together in unity towards achieving certain aims. We understand that Mr Milovanovic is the Regional Development Officer and has great knowledge about the sport. But he was proved to be ignorant about the fact that we have been conducting a National championship the last four years. We do not want Mr Milovanovic to criticize us in a negative way without having full knowledge of our efforts, our pains, and our hopes. I am therefore asking the IOF to proceed to the immediate dissociation of GREECE as a country from IOF associate members until further notice.

I am looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. Thank you very much for your patience. Thank you for your support all these years.

Yours sincerely,

Dr. Konstantinos Koukouris,

Physical Education teacher, Ph.D in Sociology of Sport from the University of Manchester, U.K.

Pervizou 10, Plagiari, Thessaloniki, GREECE 57500, www.orienteering-greece.org

P.S. I enclose 1) a translated copy of the competition rules and 2) a short report on the development of orienteering in my country.

References

Bogiopoulos, Nikos (2011). It’s the capitalism you idiot. Livanis publications, Athens.

Coakley, J. (1986). Sport in Society: Issues and controversies. Times Mirror / Mosby College Publishing, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Forstromm, Piritta (2001). The attraction of Multi- sport Games – being part of something bigger. Orienteering World, 2001, No 1-2 p.6-7.

Lygeros, Stavros (2011). From the robbery dominated society to the bankruptcy. Patakis Editions. 6th Edition. Athens. 422 pages

Touraine, Alain, (2010). Apres la crise, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 2010. After the crisis. From the market dominance to the renaissance of the society. Metehmio Editions. Athens.

[1] Borg, Eric (2008). The Chinese dream. Orienteering World, 2008, p.12-13.

[2] Borg, Eric (2008). Committed athletes and hard work key to success. Orienteering World, 2008, p.14-15.

[3] Borg, Eric (2008). Always trying to do better. Orienteering World, 2008, p.17.

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